Friday, 7 September 2012

APPSC Material- Group- I Mains Paper 4

What are the strategies of development, transfer and diffusion of technology in our country?
( Group- I,2008)

A strong base of science and engineering research provides a crucial foundation for a vibrant programme of technology development. Priority will be placed on the development of technologies which address the basic needs of the population; make Indian industries - small, medium or large - globally competitive; make the country economically strong; and address the security concerns of the nation. Special emphasis will be placed on equity in development, so that the benefits of technological growth reach the majority of the population, particularly the disadvantaged sections, leading to an improved quality of life for every citizen of the country. These aspects require technology foresight, which involves not only forecasting and assessment of technologies but also their social, economic and environmental consequences.

The growth rate in productivity of the Indian economy has been below its true potential, and the contribution to it of technological factors is inadequate. Similarly, Indian exports today derive their comparative advantage through resource and labour rather than through the power of technological innovation. The transformation of new ideas into commercial successes is of vital importance to the nation's ability to achieve high economic growth and global competitiveness. Accordingly, special emphasis will be given not only to R&D and the technological factors of innovation, but also to the other equally important social, institutional and market factors needed for adoption, diffusion and transfer of innovation to the productive sectors.

Intensive efforts will be launched to develop innovative technologies of a breakthrough nature; and to increase our share of high-tech products. Aggressive international bench-marking will be carried out. Simultaneously, efforts will be made to strengthen traditional industry so as to meet the new requirements of competition through the use of appropriate science and technology. This industry is particularly important as it provides employment at lower per capita investment, involves low energy inputs, and carries with it unique civilizational traditions and culture. Value addition, and creation of wealth through reassessment, redistribution and repositioning of our intellectual, capital and material resource will be achieved through effective use of science and technology.

Deriving value from technology-led exports and export of technologies will be facilitated through new policy initiatives, incentives and legislation. This will include intensive networking of capabilities and facilities within the country.

Rigid Quality Standards, and Accreditation of testing and calibration laboratories according to international requirements, will be given an enhanced push to enable Indian industry to avoid non-tariff barriers in global trade.

A comprehensive and well-orchestrated programme relating to education, R&D and training in all aspects of technology management will be launched. To begin with, Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and other selected institutions will be encouraged to initiate these programmes.

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