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Saturday, 7 July 2012

Group 2 AP History Bits


The story of Satavahanas was narrated in Vishnu Purana.

Megasthanese mentioned that the Andhras used to live in the towns.

The religion adopted by the Satavahanas was Vedic religion.

The religion adopted by many queens of the Satavahanas was Buddhist religion.

Many houses called Chaityams were built by the queens of the Satavahanas kings for the Buddhist monks.

The associations that helped for the development of trade during the Satavahana period were called as Guilds or Srenulu.

The names of the feudatories during the Satavahana period were Maharathi, Mahabhooja.

For administrative convenience, Satavahana Empire was divided into Aharas.

The Aharas during the time of the Satavahana were administrated by the officers called Amatyas.

During the time of the Satavahanas the Aharas away from the capital were administered by the military officers called Mahasenadhipathulu.

The Mantri Parishat during the Satavahana Period extended its help to the king in the administration of the kingdom.

The Royal employees who extended their help in the administration of the empire during the Satavahana period were Visvamaatyalu,Rajaamatyulu, Mahaamatyulu.

The Satavahana king used to consult Visvaamatyulu in taking the important decisions.

The status of the Rajaamatyas was advisors to the administration.

Mahaamatyas used to extend their help to the king in the administration as Special Officers.

There are 5 or 10 villages in the jurisdiction of Gramani.

The Sabha which is responsible for the administration of the towns during the time of the Satavahanas was Nigama Sabha.

The name of the Karshaka Pratinidhi during the Satavahana period was Gaaha Pati.

The chief source of income during the time of the Satavahanas was land revenue.

The king’s share in the produce raised by a peasant was called Bhooga, Deeva meeya.

The duty (sistu) paid by the professionals was called Kaarukara.

The official language of the Satavahanas was Prakrit.

The language of the common people during the period of Satavahanas was Desi Bhaasha.

Desi Bhaasha belongs to Dravidian language family.

The copper coins issued during the period of the Satavahanas were called as Karpanamulu.

During the Satavahana period the towns were called as Nagaramulu or Nigamamulu.

During the Satavahana period, the minimum administrative unit was Village(Gramam).

Copper and Iron metals are of a great demand during the time of the Satavahanas.

With Roman empire, the Satavahana kings used to conduct business activities for luxurious goods.

The kings who are prominent in history as Mahapatha Nirmaatalu are Satavahanas.

Brihatpalayanas ruled the northern region of Krishna River after Ikshvakus.

Kondamudi copper edict is the only inscription, which tells about Brihatpalayanas.

Kondamudi copper edict mentioned about Jayavarma.

The script of Kondamudi copper edict is Prakrit.

According to Kondamudi edict, the capital of Jayavarma is Koduru.

Jayavarma was the devotee of Lord Shiva.

Koduru is the ancient name for the present Guduru in Bandar taluque of Krishna district in Brihatpalayanas period.

According to the Nagarjunakonda inscription, Brihatpalayanas were the feudatories of Ikshvakus.

Jayavarma’s religion is Vedic.

Eight Brahmins got the Pantur village as a grant.

According to the Kondamudi copper edict, Pallavas were responsible for the raise of Brahmanism and for the downfall of Buddhism.

Salankayanas ruled the Krishna region after Jayavarma.

The officer who stayed with Jayavarma is Bhapa maha varma.

The titles of Bhapa maha varma were Mahasenapati, Mahadandanayaka & Mahatalavara.

Dr. Jovo Dubre established the fact that the present Gudur located near Machilipatnam is nothing but Koduru of Brihatpalayana period.

Bhavaraju Krishna Rao told that the present Koduru located near Ghantasala is nothing but Koduru of Brihatpalayana period.

The ports Kantakasila, Koddura, Allosigni as mentioned by Ptolemy belong to the period of Jayavarma.

Kondamudi copper edict was in Prakrit language, but the seal and subject on that edict was in Sanskrit.

Haran is the name of the division of the country of Brihatpalayanas.

Jayavarma issued Kondamudi inscription during 10th year of his reign.

Salankayanas defeated Brihatpalayanas.

After the disintegration of the Brihatpalayana dynasty Salankayana dynasty came to power.

The term Salankayana indicates the name of the Clan.

Vijaya deva Varma was the founder of Salankayana dynasty.

Vengipuram was the capital of Salankayanas.

The present name of Vengipuram is Pedavegi.

Pedavegi is near Eluru in West Godavari district.

At present 8 inscriptions are available about Salankayanas, 3 are in Prakrit language and the remaining 5 are in Sanskrit.

Chandavarma had the title of ‘PRATAPONATA SAMANTASYA’.

The great king among Salankayanas was Hastivarma.

Emblem of Salankayanas was Bull.

Chitraratha Swamy was the family deity of Salankayanas.

Chitraratha Swamy means Sun.

The contemporary Gupta ruler of Hastivarma was Samudragupta.

Allahabad pillar inscription mentioned about the Gupta King Samudragupta.

According to Allahabad Pillar inscription, Hastivarma was defeated by Samudragupta.

Salankayanas declared themselves as devotes of Bappa Bhattaraka.

Bappa Bhattaraka means “consideration of father as God”.

Nandi Varma-II issued the Pedavegi inscription, which mentioned about the grant of land to Vishnu.

Pedavegi inscription is the 1st one to mention that there are Vishnu temples in Andhra.

From the period of Salankayanas, Sanskrit language acquired the place of official language instead of Prakrit.

Kolleru is the name of water body located near Pedavegi.

In Ptolemy’s opinion, the people called “salankaini” are located to the west of the river Godavari.

Vijaya deva Varma performed ‘Asvamedha’ and proclaimed independence to the Salankayana Kingdom.

MUNYADA’ mentioned in Eluru inscription is a political employee.

Nandi Varma-II issued the Kolleru inscription.

Buddhism lost its place in Andhra and spread in east-west islands like Burma, siaon & Cambodia during the period of Salankayanas.

Even though Salankayanas were Paramaheswaras, Parama bhagavatas, they performed Asvamedha Yagas.

Buddha Palita, Bhava Viveka & Acharya Dijnaga were the great Buddhist scholars in Andhra Pradesh during Salankayanas.

Acharya Dijnaga belonged to the religion Brahmanism.

Simhavaktapuram is the Birth Place of Dijnaga.

At first, Acharya Dijnaga encouraged Hinayanam branch of Buddhism.

With the influence of Vasubandu, Dijnaga abandoned Hinayana and took Mahayana.

Kakati, Kakathya, Kaketha & Kakarthya are the substitute words that appear in the inscription for Kakatiya.

Gummadi or Kushmanda in the meaning of Kakati.

Kakatiyas were feudatories of Eastern Chalukyas.

Gundyana was the founder of Kakatiyas.

Anamakonda or Ammakonda was the capital of Kakatiyas in the beginning.

Orugallu was he capital of Kakatiyas.

Betha Raju was the Vamsakartha.

Gundyana was the father of Betharaju.

Betha Raju holds the title ‘Kakati Puradhinatha’

Prola Raju was the son of Betharaju.

Kakatha Vallabha was the title of Prola Raju.

Betha Raju-II was the son of Prola Raju.

Vaijana Dandanatha was the minister of Betha Raju-II.

Tribhuvana Malla & Mikrama Chakri are the titles of Betha Raju-II.

Kazipet inscription states that Durga Nripathi ascended the throne.

Betha Raju-II was the father of Prola Raju-II.

Rajendra Choduni of Venati Choda killed Prola Raju-II.

Bethanamathya, son of Vaijana Dandanatha was the minister of Prola Raju-II.

Bethanamathya had patronized Jainism.

Mailamma, wife of Bethanamathya built Jaina Basthi called Kadalyam on Anamakonda.

Prola Raju-II had built Swayambhu Devalayam & Kesavalayam in Warangal fort.

Rudra Deva was the eldest son of Prola Raju.

Rudra Deva ascended the throne in 1158 A.D.

Anamakonda inscription describes the success stories of Rudra Deva.

Padmavathi was the name of the wife of Rudra Deva.

Udayadithya of Telugu chola family was the father of Padmavathi.

Kakati Rudra Deva helped Nalagama Raju in the battle of Palanadu.

During Kakatiya period, the present Pithapuram & Kakinada Talukas were called as Prolanadu.

In the year 1196 A.D, Rudra Deva fought with Devagiri army.

Rudra Deva built the Thousand-Pillar temple in Anumakonda.

Draksharama inscription narrates that Rudra Deva as Vinaya Bhushan.

Mahadeva ascended the throne after Rudra Deva.

Rudra Deva died while fighting with Yadava king Jaitra Pala or Jaithugi.

Mahadeva was the father of Ganapathi Deva.

Mailama & Kundambika were the daughters of Mahadeva.

Mailama & kundambika married Nathavadi king Rudra Raju.

Racharla Rudra had rescued the empire when Ganapathi Deva was in prison.

Ganapathi Deva felicitated Malayala Bhounda Senali with the title Eepwilutaka or Deeni Churakara for the victory in Deeni Dweepa.

Naramba & Peramba were the wives of Ganapathi Deva.

The ruler of Divi Dweepa Ayeyapina Choza was the father of Naramba & Peramba.

Tikkana Somayaji was the author of Nirvachanothara Ramayana.

Ganapathi Deva shifted the capital from Anmakonda to Warangal in the year 1254.

Muthukur battle took place in the year 1263.

Rudramba & Ganapamba were the daughters of Ganapathi Deva.

Rudramba married Veerabhadra of Eastern Chalukyan dynsty.

Ganapamba married Bethana of Kota dynasty.

Jayapa Senani wrote Nritha Ratnavali.

Prola Bheema Nayaka, minister of Ganapathi Deva had the titles Aruvela Dushaka’, Suryavamsa Prathisthana Charya & Kanchi Churakara.

Rudramba ascended the throne after Ganapathi Deva in 1260.

The tourist of Venice who visited Andhra Desa during Rudramamba’s reign was Marco Polo.

Kayastha King Janniga Deva was the father of Amba Deva.

Tripuranthakam inscription narrated the victorious achievements of Amba Deva.

Unduluri Annaya Deva, Poshkala Mallayoya Preggada, King Ganapathi Deva & Gangi Deva were the important Maha Pradhans of Rudramamba.

Ayyamma & Mummidamma were the daughters of Rudramamba.

Induluri Aneya Deva was the husband of Ayyamma.

Mahadeva Raju was the husband of Mummidamma.

Mummidamma & Mahadeva Raju were the parents of Pratapa Rudra.

Pratapa Rudra ascended the throne in 1296.

Marana was the author of Markandeya Purana.

The Turkish Garshans Malik attacked Devagiri & defeated Ramachandra Deva.

The army officer of Allaudin who defeated Pratapa Rudra was Malik Caffer.

Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka’s inscription states that the king Pratapa Rudra died jumping into the river Narmada.

The Muslim King Ulumkhan held Pratapa Rudra as hostage.

Ferista declared that Krishna Nayaka who attacked Muslims in 1336 was the son of Pratapa Rudra.

The collective name given to all administration departments during Kakatiya rule was Bahathara Viyog.

Bahathara Viyogaduipathi holds supreme authority over all the departments.

The name of the officials who enjoyed land without any cess or tax during Kakatiya rule were Ayagarlu.

The number of Ayagarlu were 12. They were 1) Karanam 2) Reddy 3) Talari 4) Purohith 5) Kammari 6) Kamsali 7) Vadrangi 8) Kummari 9) Chakali 10) Mangali 11) Vetti & 12) Charmakara.

The official who levies taxes based on the assessment given by Karanam was Pedakapu or Reddy.

Betha Raju-II built Setti, Kete & Kesari Samudram.

The name of the cess levied on wet lands was Koru.

The name of the cess levied on dry lands was Putti Wahindi.

The name given to land cess is Adhi.

The name of farmers who pay taxes was Arigapulu.

The name of the tax levied on grass was Pullari.

During Kakatiya period the industries were concentrated in Peda Ganjam,China Ganjam, Kada Kuduru, Chomperela, Kanuparthi, Devarapalli & Pondorthi.

Jayapa Senani led the elephant force during Ganapathi Deva period.

Bendapuda annayya was the chief of elephant force during Pratapa Rudra period.

Sahini Kumara was the chief of infantry during Pratapa Rudra period.

Basavanna founded Veera Shaivam at Kalyani in 12th Century.

Sadbhana Sambhu founded Golagi Math.

The chief of Golagi Math who won accolades from Ganapathi Deva was Visweswara Sivesikudu.

Palkuriki Somanatha was the author of Basava Puranam & Panditaradhya Charitra.

Jaina Appana charya was the author of Jinendra Kalyanabhyudayam.

Rudra, army officer of Ganapathi Deva built Pakala Tank.

Racharla Rudra built Ramappa Tank.

The gold coins called Nishkam, Tankam & Varaha were in currency during Kakatiya period.

Takavelli Mallikarju Bhattu wrote the books Niroshtya Ramayana udaara Raghavam.

The founder of Reddy Kingdom was Prolaya Vema Reddy.

Before the establishment of the Reddy Kingdom, Prolaya Vema Reddy served in the court of Prataparudra.

Prolaya Vema Reddy founded the Reddy Kingdom in the year 1324 A.D.

The Capital of Prolaya Vema Reddy was Addanki.

From Anitalli Kaluva Cheru inscription, we know that Prolaya Vema Reddy served in the court of Kapayanayaka.

The Motupalli port town was occupied by Mallaya Reddy, the brother and commander of Prolaya Vema Reddy by defeating Bahamani Sultan Hasan Gangu.

Errana, the last poet of ‘Kavitrayam’ was the court poet of Prolaya Vema Reddy.

The later part of the ARANYA Parvam of Mahabharata was translated by Errana.

The Reddy King who built steps to Pathala Ganga in Srisailam and to Ahobilam Konda was Prolaya Vema Reddy.

The Reddy King who had the title ‘Dharma Pratishtana Nagarudu’ was Prolaya Vema Reddy.

The Reddy King who changed the capital from Addanki to Kondaveedu was Anapota Reddy.

Manyamapura inscription gives the information about shifting of the capital from Addanki to Kondaveedu by Anapota reddy.

The Reddy King who had the title Mlecchabdhi Kumbodbhava was Prolaya Vema Reddy.

The literary work dedicated to Prolaya Vema Reddy by Errana was Hari Vamsam.

Anapota Reddy ruled the Reddy Kingdom after Prolaya Vema Reddy.

According to Mani Kesavara inscription, Prolaya Vema Reddy ruled the reddy Kingdom up to 1353 A.D.

The titles of Errana are Sambhudasa & Prabandha Parameswara.

The author of ‘Nrisimha Purana’ was Errana.

From Mutnuri inscription, we know that the construction of the steps to Pathala Ganga in Srisailam was completed in 1346 by Prolaya Vema reddy.

Anapota Reddy ruled the Reddy kingdom from 1353 A.D TO 1364 A.D.

Anavema Reddy came to power after Anapota Reddy.

The period of Anavema Reddy was 1364A.D- 1386 A.D.

Somaya, the minister of Anapota Reddy issued ‘Abhaya syasana’ in Motupalli for the development of trade.

Chennamanayaka was the Army chief of Anavema Reddy.

Mamidi Peddanamatya was the minister of Anavema Reddy.

Anavema Reddy conquered Nidadavole and handed the seat of power to Choda Bhima.

The Reddy King who built ‘Veera siro mandapam’ in Srisailam was Anavema Reddy.

Kumaragiri Reddy occupied the throne after Anavema Reddy.

The author of Vishnupuranam was Vennalakanti Suranna.

The famous dancer at the court of Kumaragiri Reddy was Lakumadevi.

Kumaragiri Reddy has the title ‘Karpura Vasanta Rayalu’.

The Reddy King who used to conduct ‘Vasantotsavas’ in the country was Kumaragiri Reddy.

The feudatory of Kondaveedu who defeated the Army of Firoz Shah in 1396 A.D at Kambhammetta was Gajarao Tippa rao.

Anavema Reddy was the great King among Reddy Kings.

Anavema Reddy is very famous for his charities among Reddy Kings.

The author of Haravilasam was Srinatha.

Srinatha dedicated Haravilasam to Tippayya setti.

The author of Vasantarajeeyam was Kumaragiri Reddy.

Kavisarvabhauma was the title of Srinatha.

Kasikhandam, Bhimakhandam, Sivaratri mahatyam, Srungara naishadham, Palnati Veera Charitra, Maruttarat Charitra & Haravilasam were written by Srinatha.

Srinatha served as an educational officer in the court of Pedakomati Vema Reddy.

Santhana Sagaram tank is in Phirangipuram.

Surambika constructed the ‘Santhana Sagaram’ tank.

Surambika was the queen of Pedakomati Vema Reddy.

The author of ‘Santhana Sagaram’ inscription was Srinatha.

The Reddy king who had skill in music was Pedakomati Vema Reddy.

Srinatha dedicated his Srungara naishadham to Mamidi Singanna/ Madiki Singanna.

The ruler of Rajamahendravaram, who patronized Srinatha, was Veera Bhadra Reddy.

Potana was the contemporary of Pedakomati Vema Reddy.

Motupalli was the important port during the period of Reddy Kings.

Srinatha defeated Dindima Bhattu, the court poet of Devaraya-II of Vijayanagara Empire.

Devaraya-II honoured Srinatha with ‘Ganda Penderam’ & Kavisarvabhauma title.

The author of Sangita Chintamani & Sahitya Chintamani was Pedakomati Vema Reddy.

Tippayya Setti was famous for overseas trade during the time of Reddy Kings.

Vasanta Raju was the last Reddy King.

PedaKomati Vema Reddy was the author of ‘Srungara Deepika’ & Saptasati Charita’.

Bammera Potana was the author of ‘Narayana Satakam’, ‘andhra Bhagavatham’ & ‘Bogini Dandakam’.

Srinatha’s Haravilasam described about the imports & exports during Reddy Kings.

Reddy Kings followed Shaivism in the earlier days & later moved to vaishnavism.

Peda Komati Vema Reddy had the title Sarvagna.

Kumaragiri Reddy was expert in Bharata Natya. He wrote Vasantha Rajeeyam.

Kumara Giri Reddy’s brother-in-law Kataya Vema Reddy wrote commentary called Kumara Giri Rajeeyam on Kalidasa’s play.

Peda Komati Vema reddy was a great poet. He wrote Sangeetha Chinta Mani, Sahitya Chintamani & Saptha Sathi Saara Teeka.

Vamana Banu Bhattu, the court poet of Peda Komati Vema Reddy wrote Kanaka Rekha Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, Raghunathabhyudayam, Hamsa Sandesam, Vema Bhupala Charitra & Sabda Chandrika.

Naga Natha Kavi, who was in the court of Anavothu wrote Madana Vilasa Banam.

Sarvagna Singana wrote Rasarjana Sudhakaram, a play Ratna Panchalika & a commentary Sangeetha Sudhakaram.

Visweswara wrote Chamatkara Chandrika.

Daggupalli Dungana wrote Kanchi Mahatyam.

SrigiriKavi wrote Navanatha Charitra.

Vinnakota Peddana Mathya wrote Kavyalankara Chudamani.

Madiki Singana wrote Padma Puranam, Dasama Skanda, Vasishta Ramayanam & Sakala Neethi Sammatham.

Srinatha dedicated Haravilasam to Avachi Tippayya.

Pothana wrote veera Bhadra Vijayam with the influence of Shaivism.

Following the impact of Vaishnavism Pothana wrote Maha Bhagavatha.

Gona Budha Reddy wrote Ranganatha Ramayana in couplets.

Pothana was the contemporor of Srinatha.

Narayana Satakam was written by Pothana.

Andhra State was formed on 1st October 1953.

The 1st Chief Minister of Andhra State was Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu.

The Chief Minister of Hyderabad at the time of formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 was Burgula Rama Krishna Rao.

The chief minister of Andhra State after the midterm elections in 1955 was Bejawada Gopala Reddy.

The chief minister of Andhra Pradesh at the time of formation 90 member Legislative in 1958 was Nilam Sanjiva Reddy.

The 1st state formed on the basis of States reorganizing ordinances is Andhra Pradesh.

The 1st Finance Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Bejawada Gopala Krishna.

Telangana Regional Union was formed in 1958.

The 1st president of Telangana Regional Union was K.Achyuta Reddy.

The chief minister to introduce press bill which curtailed press freedom in 1967 was Kasu Brahmanda Reddy.

The chief Minister to nationalize Bus routes of A.P in 1962 was Sanjiv Reddy.

The President of Swatantra Party formed in Andhra Pradesh in June 1959 was N.G.Ranga.

The 1st Convener of Telangana Praja Samithi was Madan Mohan.

The Mulki conditions were introduced in Telangana in 1888.

The Prime Minister who laid foundation stone for the Visakha steel Plant on 20th January 1971 was Indira Gandhi.

The chief Minister who repeals the tradition of filling jobs with O.C candidates when no eligible candidates were available for the posts reserved for S.C and S.Ts was Damodaram Sanjivaiah.

President’s rule continued in Andhra Pradesh between the periods 18th January 1973 to 10th December 1973.

The news papers which opposed the separatist agitations in Andhra region were Visalandhra and Jamin Rythu.

The Union Govt approved the 33rd Constitutional amendment bill for six point formula as an Act on 18th December 1973.

Sri H.C.Sharin has worked as the advisory to the Governor during the Presidents Rule in A.P.

Nilam  Sanjiva reddy was the only Janata Party candidate to win only one parliamentary seat in 1977 Lok Sabha election in which Congress party won 41 out of 42 seats.

Indira Gandhi has imposed nation wide emergency on 25th July 1975.

The name of the party formed by Indira Gandhi by splitting the Indian National Congress on 1st January 1978 was Indian National Congress(I)

N.T.Rama Rao formed the Telugu Desam Party on 29th May 1982.

N.T.Rama Rao was sworn in as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh on 9th January 1983 at Lal Bahadur Stadium.

The party formed by Sri Marri Chenna Reddy on 26th February 1984 was National Democratic Party (NDP).

The president of Telangana Praja Samithi was Marri Chenna Reddy.

The Democratic Telugu Desam party was formed by Nadendla Bhaskara Rao.

The governor who dismissed the N.T.R.’s Government was Ramlal.

N.T.Rama Rao has made the State assembly to approve a resolution of repealing legislative Council on 1st June 1985.

N.T.R formed 1104 Mandals after becoming C.M for the 3rd time by repealing Talukas and Firkas in the districts.

N.T.R. government has installed a 68 feet Buddha Statue in Husain Sagar of Hyderabad in 1985.

N.T.R sworn in as chief Minister of the A.P on 12th December 1994 for the 4th Time.

Chandra Babu Naidu was sworn in as the 11th Chief Minister of A.P. on 1st September 1995.

The chief Minister who took steps for the formation of SMART was Chandra Babu Naidu.

Chandra Babu Naidu government formulated ‘Swarnandhra Pradesh and Vision-2020’ in 1998.

The states formed on the basis of linguistitic basis were Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

N.T.Rama Rao worked as the C.M. of the A.P for 7 years 5 months and 28 days.

The Transport minister during the nationalization of Buses in 1962 was Pattabhi Rama Rao.

Sri Venkateshwara Universiry was founded in Tirupathi in 1954.

Anantha Raman committee was appointed to observe the conditions of backward classes.






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